CodeQL documentation

Non-final method invocation in constructor

ID: java/non-final-call-in-constructor
Kind: problem
Security severity: 
Severity: error
Precision: very-high
   - reliability
   - correctness
   - logic
Query suites:
   - java-security-and-quality.qls

Click to see the query in the CodeQL repository

If a constructor calls a method that is overridden in a subclass, it can cause the overriding method in the subclass to be called before the subclass has been initialized. This can lead to unexpected results.


Do not call a non-final method from within a constructor if that method could be overridden in a subclass.


In the following example, executing new Sub("test") results in a NullPointerException. This is because the subclass constructor implicitly calls the superclass constructor, which in turn calls the overridden init method before the field s is initialized in the subclass constructor.

public class Super {
	public Super() {
	public void init() {

public class Sub extends Super {
	String s;
	int length;

	public Sub(String s) {
		this.s = s==null ? "" : s;
	public void init() {
		length = s.length();

To avoid this problem:

  • The init method in the super constructor should be made final or private.

  • The initialization that is performed in the overridden init method in the subclass can be moved to the subclass constructor itself, or delegated to a separate final or private method that is called from within the subclass constructor.


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