CodeQL documentation

Inefficient empty string test

ID: java/inefficient-empty-string-test
Kind: problem
Security severity: 
Severity: recommendation
Precision: high
   - efficiency
   - maintainability
Query suites:
   - java-security-and-quality.qls

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When checking whether a string s is empty, perhaps the most obvious solution is to write something like s.equals("") (or "".equals(s)). However, this actually carries a fairly significant overhead, because String.equals performs a number of type tests and conversions before starting to compare the content of the strings.


The preferred way of checking whether a string s is empty is to check if its length is equal to zero. Thus, the condition is s.length() == 0. The length method is implemented as a simple field access, and so should be noticeably faster than calling equals.

Note that in Java 6 and later, the String class has an isEmpty method that checks whether a string is empty. If the codebase does not need to support Java 5, it may be better to use that method instead.


In the following example, class InefficientDBClient uses equals to test whether the strings user and pw are empty. Note that the test "".equals(pw) guards against NullPointerException, but the test user.equals("") throws a NullPointerException if user is null.

In contrast, the class EfficientDBClient uses length instead of equals. The class preserves the behavior of InefficientDBClient by guarding pw.length() == 0 but not user.length() == 0 with an explicit test for null. Whether or not this guard is desirable depends on the intended behavior of the program.

// Inefficient version
class InefficientDBClient {
	public void connect(String user, String pw) {
		if (user.equals("") || "".equals(pw))
			throw new RuntimeException();

// More efficient version
class EfficientDBClient {
	public void connect(String user, String pw) {
		if (user.length() == 0 || (pw != null && pw.length() == 0))
			throw new RuntimeException();


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