CodeQL documentation

HTTP response splitting

ID: java/http-response-splitting
Kind: path-problem
Severity: error
Precision: high
   - security
   - external/cwe/cwe-113
Query suites:
   - java-code-scanning.qls
   - java-security-extended.qls
   - java-security-and-quality.qls

Click to see the query in the CodeQL repository

Directly writing user input (for example, an HTTP request parameter) to an HTTP header can lead to an HTTP response-splitting vulnerability. If the user input includes blank lines in it, and if the servlet container does not itself escape the blank lines, then a remote user can cause the response to turn into two separate responses, one of which is controlled by the remote user.


Guard against HTTP header splitting in the same way as guarding against cross-site scripting. Before passing any data into HTTP headers, either check the data for special characters, or escape any special characters that are present.


The following example shows the ‘name’ parameter being written to a cookie in two different ways. The first way writes it directly to the cookie, and thus is vulnerable to response-splitting attacks. The second way first removes all special characters, thus avoiding the potential problem.

public class ResponseSplitting extends HttpServlet {
	protected void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
	throws ServletException, IOException {
		// BAD: setting a cookie with an unvalidated parameter
		Cookie cookie = new Cookie("name", request.getParameter("name"));

		// GOOD: remove special characters before putting them in the header
		String name = removeSpecial(request.getParameter("name"));
		Cookie cookie2 = new Cookie("name", name);

	private static String removeSpecial(String str) {
		return str.replaceAll("[^a-zA-Z ]", "");


The following example shows the use of the library ‘netty’ with HTTP response-splitting verification configurations. The second way will verify the parameters before using them to build the HTTP response.

import io.netty.handler.codec.http.DefaultHttpHeaders;

public class ResponseSplitting {
    // BAD: Disables the internal response splitting verification
    private final DefaultHttpHeaders badHeaders = new DefaultHttpHeaders(false);

    // GOOD: Verifies headers passed don't contain CRLF characters
    private final DefaultHttpHeaders goodHeaders = new DefaultHttpHeaders();

    // BAD: Disables the internal response splitting verification
    private final DefaultHttpResponse badResponse = new DefaultHttpResponse(version, httpResponseStatus, false);

    // GOOD: Verifies headers passed don't contain CRLF characters
    private final DefaultHttpResponse goodResponse = new DefaultHttpResponse(version, httpResponseStatus);


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