CodeQL documentation

Back reference precedes capture group

ID: js/regex/back-reference-before-group
Kind: problem
Security severity: 
Severity: error
Precision: very-high
   - reliability
   - correctness
   - regular-expressions
Query suites:
   - javascript-security-and-quality.qls

Click to see the query in the CodeQL repository

Back references can be used to refer back to the result of a previously matched capture group. It is syntactically legal to refer to a capture group that has not finished matching yet, but such a back reference always matches the empty string and is not very useful.


Remove the back reference if it is useless, or update it to refer to the right capture group.


In the following example, the back reference \2 comes before the capture group (.*) it refers to. (Note that the first group is non-capturing.)

if (/(?:start|end)(\[*|\{*)abc\2:(.*)/.test(input))
	console.log("Found the pattern.");

Forward references like this can arise if a regular expression is updated inconsistently. In this example, for instance, the first group may initially have been capturing so the back reference referred to the group (\[*|\{*]). This group, however, is now the first capturing group, so the back reference should be updated to \1.


  • © GitHub, Inc.
  • Terms
  • Privacy