CodeQL documentation

Off-by-one comparison against length

ID: js/index-out-of-bounds
Kind: problem
Security severity: 
Severity: warning
Precision: high
   - reliability
   - correctness
   - logic
   - external/cwe/cwe-193
Query suites:
   - javascript-security-and-quality.qls

Click to see the query in the CodeQL repository

Reading an array element from an index that is greater than the array length always returns undefined. If the index is compared to the array length using the less-than-or-equal operator <= instead of the less-than operator <, the index could be out of bounds, which may not be intentional and may adversely affect performance.


Use less-than (<) rather than less-than-or-equal (<=) when comparing a potential index against the array length. For loops that iterate over every element in an array, use a for...of loop or the forEach method instead of explicitly iterating over all indices.


The following example shows a function that intends to check whether an array a contains an element elt by iterating over its elements and comparing them to elt. However, the terminating condition of the loop is incorrectly specified as i <= a.length, not i < a.length, so elt will additionally be compared against the value undefined read from index a.length, meaning that the function considers every array to contain undefined:

function contains(a, elt) {
  for (let i = 0; i <= a.length; ++i)
    if (a[i] === elt)
      return true;
  return false;

The problem can be fixed by using less-than instead of less-than-or-equals:

function contains(a, elt) {
  for (let i = 0; i < a.length; ++i)
    if (a[i] === elt)
      return true;
  return false;


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