CodeQL documentation

Non-linear pattern

ID: js/non-linear-pattern
Kind: problem
Severity: error
Precision: very-high
   - reliability
   - correctness
   - language-features
Query suites:
   - javascript-security-and-quality.qls

Click to see the query in the CodeQL repository

If the same pattern variable is bound multiple times in the same object or array pattern, the last binding overwrites all of the earlier ones. This is most likely unintended and should be avoided.

In TypeScript, a common mistake is to try to write type annotations inside a pattern. This is not possible, and the type annotation should come after the pattern.


Rename the pattern variables to have different names. In an array pattern, elements that do not need to be bound can be omitted.


In the following example, the function distanceFromOrigin uses an array pattern to decompose its argument point. The pattern binds x twice: first, x is bound to point[0], the first element of point; this binding is then immediately overwritten by a binding to point[1], which is probably unintended.

function distanceFromOrigin(point) {
    var [x, x] = point;
    return Math.sqrt(x*x + y*y);

From context, it appears that the second binding should have been for variable y like this:

function distanceFromOrigin(point) {
    var [x, y] = point;
    return Math.sqrt(x*x + y*y);

This can sometimes happen in TypeScript, due to the apparant similarity between property patterns and type annotations. In the following example, the function uses a pattern parameter with properties x and y. These appear to have type number, but are in fact untyped properties both stored in a variable named number.

function distance({x: number, y: number}) {
    return Math.sqrt(x*x + y*y);

It is not possible to specify type annotations inside a pattern. The correct way is to specify the type after the parameter:

function distance({x, y}: {x: number, y: number}) {
    return Math.sqrt(x*x + y*y);