CodeQL documentation

Arbitrary file write during zip extraction (“Zip Slip”)

ID: cs/zipslip
Kind: path-problem
Severity: error
Precision: high
Tags:
   - security
   - external/cwe/cwe-022
Query suites:
   - csharp-code-scanning.qls
   - csharp-security-extended.qls
   - csharp-security-and-quality.qls

Click to see the query in the CodeQL repository

Extracting files from a malicious zip archive without validating that the destination file path is within the destination directory can cause files outside the destination directory to be overwritten, due to the possible presence of directory traversal elements (..) in archive paths.

Zip archives contain archive entries representing each file in the archive. These entries include a file path for the entry, but these file paths are not restricted and may contain unexpected special elements such as the directory traversal element (..). If these file paths are used to determine an output file to write the contents of the archive item to, then the file may be written to an unexpected location. This can result in sensitive information being revealed or deleted, or an attacker being able to influence behavior by modifying unexpected files.

For example, if a zip file contains a file entry ..\sneaky-file, and the zip file is extracted to the directory c:\output, then naively combining the paths would result in an output file path of c:\output\..\sneaky-file, which would cause the file to be written to c:\sneaky-file.

Recommendation

Ensure that output paths constructed from zip archive entries are validated to prevent writing files to unexpected locations.

The recommended way of writing an output file from a zip archive entry is to:

  1. Use Path.Combine(destinationDirectory, archiveEntry.FullName) to determine the raw output path.
  2. Use Path.GetFullPath(..) on the raw output path to resolve any directory traversal elements.
  3. Use Path.GetFullPath(destinationDirectory + Path.DirectorySeparatorChar) to determine the fully resolved path of the destination directory.
  4. Validate that the resolved output path StartsWith the resolved destination directory, aborting if this is not true. Another alternative is to validate archive entries against a whitelist of expected files.

Example

In this example, a file path taken from a zip archive item entry is combined with a destination directory. The result is used as the destination file path without verifying that the result is within the destination directory. If provided with a zip file containing an archive path like ..\sneaky-file, then this file would be written outside the destination directory.

using System.IO;
using System.IO.Compression;

class Bad
{
    public static void WriteToDirectory(ZipArchiveEntry entry,
                                        string destDirectory)
    {
        string destFileName = Path.Combine(destDirectory, entry.FullName);
        entry.ExtractToFile(destFileName);
    }
}

To fix this vulnerability, we need to make three changes. Firstly, we need to resolve any directory traversal or other special characters in the path by using Path.GetFullPath. Secondly, we need to identify the destination output directory, again using Path.GetFullPath, this time on the output directory. Finally, we need to ensure that the resolved output starts with the resolved destination directory, and throw an exception if this is not the case.

using System.IO;
using System.IO.Compression;

class Good
{
    public static void WriteToDirectory(ZipArchiveEntry entry,
                                        string destDirectory)
    {
        string destFileName = Path.GetFullPath(Path.Combine(destDirectory, entry.FullName));
        string fullDestDirPath = Path.GetFullPath(destDirectory + Path.DirectorySeparatorChar);
        if (!destFileName.StartsWith(fullDestDirPath)) {
            throw new System.InvalidOperationException("Entry is outside the target dir: " +
                                                                                 destFileName);
        }
        entry.ExtractToFile(destFileName);
    }
}

References