CodeQL documentation

CodeQL library for Go

When you’re analyzing a Go program, you can make use of the large collection of classes in the CodeQL library for Go.


CodeQL ships with an extensive library for analyzing Go code. The classes in this library present the data from a CodeQL database in an object-oriented form and provide abstractions and predicates to help you with common analysis tasks.

The library is implemented as a set of QL modules, that is, files with the extension .qll. The module go.qll imports most other standard library modules, so you can include the complete library by beginning your query with:

import go

Broadly speaking, the CodeQL library for Go provides two views of a Go code base: at the syntactic level, source code is represented as an abstract syntax tree (AST), while at the data-flow level it is represented as a data-flow graph (DFG). In between, there is also an intermediate representation of the program as a control-flow graph (CFG), though this representation is rarely useful on its own and mostly used to construct the higher-level DFG representation.

The AST representation captures the syntactic structure of the program. You can use it to reason about syntactic properties such as the nesting of statements within each other, but also about the types of expressions and which variable a name refers to.

The DFG, on the other hand, provides an approximation of how data flows through variables and operations at runtime. It is used, for example, by the security queries to model the way user-controlled input can propagate through the program. Additionally, the DFG contains information about which function may be invoked by a given call (taking virtual dispatch through interfaces into account), as well as control-flow information about the order in which different operations may be executed at runtime.

As a rule of thumb, you normally want to use the AST only for superficial syntactic queries. Any analysis involving deeper semantic properties of the program should be done on the DFG.

The rest of this tutorial briefly summarizes the most important classes and predicates provided by this library, including references to the detailed API documentation where applicable. We start by giving an overview of the AST representation, followed by an explanation of names and entities, which are used to represent name-binding information, and of types and type information. Then we move on to control flow and the data-flow graph, and finally the call graph and a few advanced topics.

Abstract syntax

The AST presents the program as a hierarchical structure of nodes, each of which corresponds to a syntactic element of the program source text. For example, there is an AST node for each expression and each statement in the program. These AST nodes are arranged into a parent-child relationship reflecting the nesting of syntactic elements and the order in which inner elements appear in enclosing ones.

For example, this is the AST for the expression (x + y) * z:


It is composed of six AST nodes, representing x, y, x + y, (x + y), z and the entire expression (x + y) * z, respectively. The AST nodes representing x and y are children of the AST node representing x + y, x being the zeroth child and y being the first child, reflecting their order in the program text. Similarly, x + y is the only child of (x + y), which is the zeroth child of (x + y) * z, whose first child is z.

All AST nodes belong to class AstNode, which defines generic tree traversal predicates:

  • getChild(i): returns the ith child of this AST node.
  • getAChild(): returns any child of this AST node.
  • getParent(): returns the parent node of this AST node, if any.

These predicates should only be used to perform generic AST traversal. To access children of specific AST node types, the specialized predicates introduced below should be used instead. In particular, queries should not rely on the numeric indices of child nodes relative to their parent nodes: these are considered an implementation detail that may change between versions of the library.

The predicate toString() in class AstNode nodes gives a short description of the AST node, usually just indicating what kind of node it is. The toString() predicate does not provide access to the source text corresponding to an AST node. The source text is not stored in the dataset, and hence is not directly accessible to CodeQL queries.

The predicate getLocation() in class AstNode returns a Location entity describing the source location of the program element represented by the AST node. You can use its member predicates getFile(), getStartLine(), getStartColumn, getEndLine(), and getEndColumn() to obtain information about its file, start line and column, and end line and column.

The most important subclasses of AstNode are Stmt and Expr, which represent statements and expressions, respectively. This section briefly discusses some of their more important subclasses and predicates. For a full reference of all the subclasses of Stmt and Expr, see Abstract syntax tree classes for Go.


  • ExprStmt: an expression statement; use getExpr() to access the expression itself
  • Assignment: an assignment statement; use getLhs(i) to access the ith left-hand side and getRhs(i) to access the ith right-hand side; if there is only a single left-hand side you can use getLhs() instead, and similar for the right-hand side
    • SimpleAssignStmt: an assignment statement that does not involve a compound operator
      • AssignStmt: a plain assignment statement of the form lhs = rhs
      • DefineStmt: a short-hand variable declaration of the form lhs := rhs
    • CompoundAssignStmt: an assignment statement with a compound operator, such as lhs += rhs
  • IncStmt, DecStmt: an increment statement or a decrement statement, respectively; use getOperand() to access the expression being incremented or decremented
  • BlockStmt: a block of statements between curly braces; use getStmt(i) to access the ith statement in a block
  • IfStmt: an if statement; use getInit(), getCond(), getThen(), and getElse() to access the (optional) init statement, the condition being checked, the “then” branch to evaluate if the condition is true, and the (optional) “else” branch to evaluate otherwise, respectively
  • LoopStmt: a loop; use getBody() to access its body
    • ForStmt: a for statement; use getInit(), getCond(), and getPost() to access the init statement, loop condition, and post statement, respectively, all of which are optional
    • RangeStmt: a range statement; use getDomain() to access the iteration domain, and getKey() and getValue() to access the expressions to which successive keys and values are assigned, if any
  • GoStmt: a go statement; use getCall() to access the call expression that is evaluated in the new goroutine
  • DeferStmt: a defer statement; use getCall() to access the call expression being deferred
  • SendStmt: a send statement; use getChannel() and getValue() to access the channel and the value being sent over the channel, respectively
  • ReturnStmt: a return statement; use getExpr(i) to access the ith returned expression; if there is only a single returned expression you can use getExpr() instead
  • BranchStmt: a statement that interrupts structured control flow; use getLabel() to get the optional target label
    • BreakStmt: a break statement
    • ContinueStmt: a continue statement
    • FallthroughStmt: a fallthrough statement at the end of a switch case
    • GotoStmt: a goto statement
  • DeclStmt: a declaration statement, use getDecl() to access the declaration in this statement; note that one rarely needs to deal with declaration statements directly, since reasoning about the entities they declare is usually easier
  • SwitchStmt: a switch statement; use getInit() to access the (optional) init statement, and getCase(i) to access the ith case or default clause
    • ExpressionSwitchStmt: a switch statement examining the value of an expression
    • TypeSwitchStmt: a switch statement examining the type of an expression
  • CaseClause: a case or default clause in a switch statement; use getExpr(i) to access the ith expression, and getStmt(i) to access the ith statement in the body of this clause
  • SelectStmt: a select statement; use getCommClause(i) to access the ith case or default clause
  • CommClause: a case or default clause in a select statement; use getComm() to access the send/receive statement of this clause (not defined for default clauses), and getStmt(i) to access the ith statement in the body of this clause
  • RecvStmt: a receive statement in a case clause of a select statement; use getLhs(i) to access the ith left-hand side of this statement, and getExpr() to access the underlying receive expression


Class Expression has a predicate isConst() that holds if the expression is a compile-time constant. For such constant expressions, getNumericValue() and getStringValue() can be used to determine their numeric value and string value, respectively. Note that these predicates are not defined for expressions whose value cannot be determined at compile time. Also note that the result type of getNumericValue() is the QL type float. If an expression has a numeric value that cannot be represented as a QL float, this predicate is also not defined. In such cases, you can use getExactValue() to obtain a string representation of the value of the constant.

  • Ident: an identifier; use getName() to access its name
  • SelectorExpr: a selector of the form base.sel; use getBase() to access the part before the dot, and getSelector() for the identifier after the dot
  • BasicLit: a literal of a basic type; subclasses IntLit, FloatLit, ImagLit, RuneLit, and StringLit represent various specific kinds of literals
  • FuncLit: a function literal; use getBody() to access the body of the function
  • CompositeLit: a composite literal; use getKey(i) and getValue(i) to access the ith key and the ith value, respectively
  • ParenExpr: a parenthesized expression; use getExpr() to access the expression between the parentheses
  • IndexExpr: an index expression base[idx]; use getBase() and getIndex() to access base and idx, respectively
  • SliceExpr: a slice expression base[lo:hi:max]; use getBase(), getLow(), getHigh(), and getMax() to access base, lo, hi, and max, respectively; note that lo, hi, and max can be omitted, in which case the corresponding predicates are not defined
  • ConversionExpr: a conversion expression T(e); use getTypeExpr() and getOperand() to access T and e, respectively
  • TypeAssertExpr: a type assertion e.(T); use getExpr() and getTypeExpr() to access e and T, respectively
  • CallExpr: a call expression callee(arg0, ..., argn); use getCalleeExpr() to access callee, and getArg(i) to access the ith argument
  • StarExpr: a star expression, which may be either a pointer-type expression or a pointer-dereference expression, depending on context; use getBase() to access the operand of the star
  • TypeExpr: an expression that denotes a type
  • OperatorExpr: an expression with a unary or binary operator; use getOperator() to access the operator
    • UnaryExpr: an expression with a unary operator; use getAnOperand() to access the operand of the operator
    • BinaryExpr: an expression with a binary operator; use getLeftOperand() and getRightOperand() to access the left and the right operand, respectively
      • ComparisonExpr: a binary expression that performs a comparison, including both equality tests and relational comparisons
        • EqualityTestExpr: an equality test, that is, either == or !=; the predicate getPolarity() has result true for the former and false for the latter
        • RelationalComparisonExpr: a relational comparison; use getLesserOperand() and getGreaterOperand() to access the lesser and greater operand of the comparison, respectively; isStrict() holds if this is a strict comparison using < or >, as opposed to <= or >=


While Ident and SelectorExpr are very useful classes, they are often too general: Ident covers all identifiers in a program, including both identifiers appearing in a declaration as well as references, and does not distinguish between names referring to packages, types, variables, constants, functions, or statement labels. Similarly, a SelectorExpr might refer to a package, a type, a function, or a method.

Class Name and its subclasses provide a more fine-grained mapping of this space, organized along the two axes of structure and namespace. In terms of structure, a name can be a SimpleName, meaning that it is a simple identifier (and hence an Ident), or it can be a QualifiedName, meaning that it is a qualified identifier (and hence a SelectorExpr). In terms of namespacing, a Name can be a PackageName, TypeName, ValueName, or LabelName. A ValueName, in turn, can be either a ConstantName, a VariableName, or a FunctionName, depending on what sort of entity the name refers to.

A related abstraction is provided by class ReferenceExpr: a reference expression is an expression that refers to a variable, a constant, a function, a field, or an element of an array or a slice. Use predicates isLvalue() and isRvalue() to determine whether a reference expression appears in a syntactic context where it is assigned to or read from, respectively.

Finally, ValueExpr generalizes ReferenceExpr to include all other kinds of expressions that can be evaluated to a value (as opposed to expressions that refer to a package, a type, or a statement label).


At the syntactic level, functions appear in two forms: in function declarations (represented by class FuncDecl) and as function literals (represented by class FuncLit). Since it is often convenient to reason about functions of either kind, these two classes share a common superclass FuncDef, which defines a few useful member predicates:

  • getBody() provides access to the function body
  • getName() gets the function name; it is undefined for function literals, which do not have a name
  • getParameter(i) gets the ith parameter of the function
  • getResultVar(i) gets the ith result variable of the function; if there is only one result, getResultVar() can be used to access it
  • getACall() gets a data-flow node (see below) representing a call to this function

Entities and name binding

Not all elements of a code base can be represented as AST nodes. For example, functions defined in the standard library or in a dependency do not have a source-level definition within the source code of the program itself, and built-in functions like len do not have a definition at all. Hence functions cannot simplify be identified with their definition, and similarly for variables, types, and so on.

To smooth over this difference and provide a unified view of functions no matter where they are defined, the Go library introduces the concept of an entity. An entity is a named program element, that is, a package, a type, a constant, a variable, a field, a function, or a label. All entities belong to class Entity, which defines a few useful predicates:

  • getName() gets the name of the entity
  • hasQualifiedName(pkg, n) holds if this entity is declared in package pkg and has name n; this predicate is only defined for types, functions, and package-level variables and constants (but not for methods or local variables)
  • getDeclaration() connects an entity to its declaring identifier, if any
  • getAReference() gets a Name that refers to this entity

Conversely, class Name defines a predicate getTarget() that gets the entity to which the name refers.

Class Entity has several subclasses representing specific kinds of entities: PackageEntity for packages; TypeEntity for types; ValueEntity for constants (Constant), variables (Variable), and functions (Function); and Label for statement labels.

Class Variable, in turn, has a few subclasses representing specific kinds of variables: a LocalVariable is a variable declared in a local scope, that is, not at package level; ReceiverVariable, Parameter and ResultVariable describe receivers, parameters and results, respectively, and define a predicate getFunction() to access the corresponding function. Finally, class Field represents struct fields, and provides a member predicate hasQualifiedName(pkg, tp, f) that holds if this field has name f and belongs to type tp in package pkg. (Note that due to embedding the same field can belong to multiple types.)

Class Function has a subclass Method representing methods (including both interface methods and methods defined on a named type). Similar to Field, Method provides a member predicate hasQualifiedName(pkg, tp, m) that holds if this method has name m and belongs to type tp in package pkg. Predicate implements(m2) holds if this method implements method m2, that is, it has the same name and signature as m2 and it belongs to a type that implements the interface to which m2 belongs. For any function, getACall() provides access to call sites that may call this function, possibly through virtual dispatch.

Finally, module Builtin provides a convenient way of looking up the entities corresponding to built-in functions and types. For example, Builtin::len() is the entity representing the built-in function len, Builtin::bool() is the bool type, and Builtin::nil() is the value nil.

Type information

Types are represented by class Type and its subclasses, such as BoolType for the built-in type bool; NumericType for the various numeric types including IntType, Uint8Type, Float64Type and others; StringType for the type string; NamedType, ArrayType, SliceType, StructType, InterfaceType, PointerType, MapType, ChanType for named types, arrays, slices, structs, interfaces, pointers, maps, and channels, respectively. Finally, SignatureType represents function types.

Note that the type BoolType is distinct from the entity Builtin::bool(): the latter views bool as a declared entity, the former as a type. You can, however, map from types to their corresponding entity (if any) using the predicate getEntity().

Class Expr and class Entity both define a predicate getType() to determine the type of an expression or entity. If the type of an expression or entity cannot be determined (for example because some dependency could not be found during extraction), it will be associated with an invalid type of class InvalidType.

Control flow

Most CodeQL query writers will rarely use the control-flow representation of a program directly, but it is nevertheless useful to understand how it works.

Unlike the abstract syntax tree, which views the program as a hierarchy of AST nodes, the control-flow graph views it as a collection of control-flow nodes, each representing a single operation performed at runtime. These nodes are connected to each other by (directed) edges representing the order in which operations are performed.

For example, consider the following code snippet:

x := 0
if p != nil {
  x = p.f
return x

In the AST, this is represented as an IfStmt and a ReturnStmt, with the former having an NeqExpr and a BlockStmt as its children, and so on. This provides a very detailed picture of the syntactic structure of the code, but it does not immediately help us reason about the order in which the various operations such as the comparison and the assignment are performed.

In the CFG, there are nodes corresponding to x := 0, p != nil, x = p.f, and return x, as well as a few others. The edges between these nodes model the possible execution orders of these statements and expressions, and look as follows (simplified somewhat for presentational purposes):


For example, the edge from p != nil to x = p.f models the case where the comparison evaluates to true and the “then” branch is evaluated, while the edge from p != nil to return x models the case where the comparison evaluates to false and the “then” branch is skipped.

Note, in particular, that a CFG node can have multiple outgoing edges (like from p != nil) as well as multiple incoming edges (like into return x) to represent control-flow branching at runtime.

Also note that only AST nodes that perform some kind of operation on values have a corresponding CFG node. This includes expressions (such as the comparison p != nil), assignment statements (such as x = p.f) and return statements (such as return x), but not statements that serve a purely syntactic purpose (such as block statements) and statements whose semantics is already reflected by the CFG edges (such as if statements).

It is important to point out that the control-flow graph provided by the CodeQL libraries for Go only models local control flow, that is, flow within a single function. Flow from function calls to the function they invoke, for example, is not represented by control-flow edges.

In CodeQL, control-flow nodes are represented by class ControlFlow::Node, and the edges between nodes are captured by the member predicates getASuccessor() and getAPredecessor() of ControlFlow::Node. In addition to control-flow nodes representing runtime operations, each function also has a synthetic entry node and an exit node, representing the start and end of an execution of the function, respectively. These exist to ensure that the control-flow graph corresponding to a function has a unique entry node and a unique exit node, which is required for many standard control-flow analysis algorithms.

Data flow

At the data-flow level, the program is thought of as a collection of data-flow nodes. These nodes are connected to each other by (directed) edges representing the way data flows through the program at runtime.

For example, there are data-flow nodes corresponding to expressions and other data-flow nodes corresponding to variables (SSA variables, to be precise). Here is the data-flow graph corresponding to the code snippet shown above, ignoring SSA conversion for simplicity:


Note that unlike in the control-flow graph, the assignments x := 0 and x = p.f are not represented as nodes. Instead, they are expressed as edges between the node representing the right-hand side of the assignment and the node representing the variable on the left-hand side. For any subsequent uses of that variable, there is a data-flow edge from the variable to that use, so by following the edges in the data-flow graph we can trace the flow of values through variables at runtime.

It is important to point out that the data-flow graph provided by the CodeQL libraries for Go only models local flow, that is, flow within a single function. Flow from arguments in a function call to the corresponding function parameters, for example, is not represented by data-flow edges.

In CodeQL, data-flow nodes are represented by class DataFlow::Node, and the edges between nodes are captured by the predicate DataFlow::localFlowStep. The predicate DataFlow::localFlow generalizes this from a single flow step to zero or more flow steps.

Most expressions have a corresponding data-flow node; exceptions include type expressions, statement labels and other expressions that do not have a value, as well as short-circuiting operators. To map from the AST node of an expression to the corresponding DFG node, use DataFlow::exprNode. Note that the AST node and the DFG node are different entities and cannot be used interchangeably.

There is also a predicate asExpr() on DataFlow::Node that allows you to recover the expression underlying a DFG node. However, this predicate should be used with caution, since many data-flow nodes do not correspond to an expression, and so this predicate will not be defined for them.

Similar to Expr, DataFlow::Node has a member predicate getType() to determine the type of a node, as well as predicates getNumericValue(), getStringValue(), and getExactValue() to retrieve the value of a node if it is constant.

Important subclasses of DataFlow::Node include:

  • DataFlow::CallNode: a function call or method call; use getArgument(i) and getResult(i) to obtain the data-flow nodes corresponding to the ith argument and the ith result of this call, respectively; if there is only a single result, getResult() will return it
  • DataFlow::ParameterNode: a parameter of a function; use asParameter() to access the corresponding AST node
  • DataFlow::BinaryOperationNode: an operation involving a binary operator; each BinaryExpr has a corresponding BinaryOperationNode, but there are also binary operations that are not explicit at the AST level, such as those arising from compound assignments and increment/decrement statements; at the AST level, x + 1, x += 1, and x++ are represented by different kinds of AST nodes, while at the DFG level they are all modeled as a binary operation node with operands x and 1
  • DataFlow::UnaryOperationNode: analogous, but for unary operators
    • DataFlow::PointerDereferenceNode: a pointer dereference, either explicit in an expression of the form *p, or implicit in a field or method reference through a pointer
    • DataFlow::AddressOperationNode: analogous, but for taking the address of an entity
    • DataFlow::RelationalComparisonNode, DataFlow::EqualityTestNode: data-flow nodes corresponding to RelationalComparisonExpr and EqualityTestExpr AST nodes

Finally, classes Read and Write represent, respectively, a read or a write of a variable, a field, or an element of an array, a slice or a map. Use their member predicates readsVariable, writesVariable, readsField, writesField, readsElement, and writesElement to determine what the read/write refers to.

Call graph

The call graph connects function (and method) calls to the functions they invoke. Call graph information is made available by two member predicates on DataFlow::CallNode: getTarget() returns the declared target of a call, while getACallee() returns all possible actual functions a call may invoke at runtime.

These two predicates differ in how they handle calls to interface methods: while getTarget() will return the interface method itself, getACallee() will return all concrete methods that implement the interface method.

Global data flow and taint tracking

The predicates DataFlow::localFlowStep and DataFlow::localFlow are useful for reasoning about the flow of values in a single function. However, more advanced use cases, particularly in security analysis, will invariably require reasoning about global data flow, including flow into, out of, and across function calls, and through fields.

In CodeQL, such reasoning is expressed in terms of data-flow configurations. A data-flow configuration has three ingredients: sources, sinks, and barriers (also called sanitizers), all of which are sets of data-flow nodes. Given these three sets, CodeQL provides a general mechanism for finding paths from a source to a sink, possibly going into and out of functions and fields, but never flowing through a barrier.

To define a data-flow configuration, you can define a subclass of DataFlow::Configuration, overriding the member predicates isSource, isSink, and isBarrier to define the sets of sources, sinks, and barriers.

Going beyond pure data flow, many security analyses need to perform more general taint tracking, which also considers flow through value-transforming operations such as string operations. To track taint, you can define a subclass of TaintTracking::Configuration, which works similar to data-flow configurations.

A detailed exposition of global data flow and taint tracking is out of scope for this brief introduction. For a general overview of data flow and taint tracking, see “About data flow analysis.”

Advanced libraries

Finally, we briefly describe a few concepts and libraries that are useful for advanced query writers.

Basic blocks and dominance

Many important control-flow analyses organize control-flow nodes into basic blocks, which are maximal straight-line sequences of control-flow nodes without any branching. In the CodeQL libraries, basic blocks are represented by class BasicBlock. Each control-flow node belongs to a basic block. You can use the predicate getBasicBlock() in class ControlFlow::Node and the predicate getNode(i) in BasicBlock to move from one to the other.

Dominance is a standard concept in control-flow analysis: a basic block dom is said to dominate a basic block bb if any path through the control-flow graph from the entry node to the first node of bb must pass through dom. In other words, whenever program execution reaches the beginning of bb, it must have come through dom. Each basic block is moreover considered to dominate itself.

Dually, a basic block postdom is said to post-dominate a basic block bb if any path through the control-flow graph from the last node of bb to the exit node must pass through postdom. In other words, after program execution leaves bb, it must eventually reach postdom.

These two concepts are captured by two member predicates dominates and postDominates of class BasicBlock.

Condition guard nodes

A condition guard node is a synthetic control-flow node that records the fact that at some point in the control-flow graph the truth value of a condition is known. For example, consider again the code snippet we saw above:

x := 0
if p != nil {
  x = p.f
return x

At the beginning of the “then” branch p is known not be nil. This knowledge is encoded in the control-flow graph by a condition guard node preceding the assignment to x, recording the fact that p != nil is true at this point:


A typical use of this information would be in an analysis that looks for nil dereferences: such an analysis would be able to conclude that the field read p.f is safe because it is immediately preceded by a condition guard node guaranteeing that p is not nil.

In CodeQL, condition guard nodes are represented by class ControlFlow::ConditionGuardNode which offers a variety of member predicates to reason about which conditions a guard node guarantees.

Static single-assignment form

Static single-assignment form (SSA form for short) is a program representation in which the original program variables are mapped onto more fine-grained SSA variables. Each SSA variable has exactly one definition, so program variables with multiple assignments correspond to multiple SSA variables.

Most of the time query authors do not have to deal with SSA form directly. The data-flow graph uses it under the hood, and so most of the benefits derived from SSA can be gained by simply using the data-flow graph.

For example, the data-flow graph for our running example actually looks more like this:


Note that the program variable x has been mapped onto three distinct SSA variables x1, x2, and x3. In this case there is not much benefit to such a representation, but in general SSA form has well-known advantages for data-flow analysis for which we refer to the literature.

If you do need to work with raw SSA variables, they are represented by the class SsaVariable. Class SsaDefinition represents definitions of SSA variables, which have a one-to-one correspondence with SsaVariables. Member predicates getDefinition() and getVariable() exist to map from one to the other. You can use member predicate getAUse() of SsaVariable to look for uses of an SSA variable. To access the program variable underlying an SSA variable, use member predicate getSourceVariable().

Global value numbering

Global value numbering is a technique for determining when two computations in a program are guaranteed to yield the same result. This is done by associating with each data-flow node an abstract representation of its value (conventionally called a value number, even though in practice it is not usually a number) such that identical computations are represented by identical value numbers.

Since this is an undecidable problem, global value numbering is conservative in the sense that if two data-flow nodes have the same value number they are guaranteed to have the same value at runtime, but not conversely. (That is, there may be data-flow nodes that do, in fact, always evaluate to the same value, but their value numbers are different.)

In the CodeQL libraries for Go, you can use the globalValueNumber(nd) predicate to compute the global value number for a data-flow node nd. Value numbers are represented as an opaque QL type GVN that provides very little information. Usually, all you need to do with global value numbers is to compare them to each other to determine whether two data-flow nodes have the same value.