CodeQL documentation

XPath injection

ID: go/xml/xpath-injection
Kind: path-problem
Severity: error
Precision: high
   - security
   - external/cwe/cwe-643
Query suites:
   - go-code-scanning.qls
   - go-security-extended.qls
   - go-security-and-quality.qls

Click to see the query in the CodeQL repository

If an XPath expression is built using string concatenation, and the components of the concatenation include user input, a user is likely to be able to create a malicious XPath expression.


If user input must be included in an XPath expression, pre-compile the query and use variable references to include the user input.

For example, when using the API, you can do this by creating a function that takes an *goxpath.Opts structure. In this structure you can then set the values of the variable references. This function can then be specified when calling Exec(), Exec{Bool|Num|Node}(), ParseExec(), or MustExec().


In the first example, the code accepts a username specified by the user, and uses this unvalidated and unsanitized value in an XPath expression. This is vulnerable to the user providing special characters or string sequences that change the meaning of the XPath expression to search for different values.

In the second example, the XPath expression is a hard-coded string that specifies some variables, which are safely resolved at runtime using the goxpath.Opts structure.

package main

import (


func main() {}

func processRequest(r *http.Request, doc tree.Node) {
	username := r.Form.Get("username")

	// BAD: User input used directly in an XPath expression
	xPath := goxpath.MustParse("//users/user[login/text()='" + username + "']/home_dir/text()")
	unsafeRes, _ := xPath.ExecBool(doc)

	// GOOD: Value of parameters is defined here instead of directly in the query
	opt := func(o *goxpath.Opts) {
		o.Vars["username"] = tree.String(username)
	// GOOD: Uses parameters to avoid including user input directly in XPath expression
	xPath = goxpath.MustParse("//users/user[login/text()=$username]/home_dir/text()")
	safeRes, _ := xPath.ExecBool(doc, opt)