CodeQL documentation

Off-by-one comparison against length

ID: go/index-out-of-bounds
Kind: problem
Security severity: 
Severity: error
Precision: high
   - reliability
   - correctness
   - logic
   - external/cwe/cwe-193
Query suites:
   - go-security-and-quality.qls

Click to see the query in the CodeQL repository

Indexing operations on arrays, slices or strings should use an index at most one less than the length. If the index to be accessed is checked for being less than or equal to the length (<=), instead of less than the length (<), the index could be out of bounds.


Use less than (<) rather than less than or equals (<=) when comparing a potential index against a length. For loops that iterate over every element, a better solution is to use a range loop instead of looping over explicit indexes.


The following example shows a method which checks whether a value appears in a comma-separated list of values:

package main

import "strings"

func containsBad(searchName string, names string) bool {
	values := strings.Split(names, ",")
	// BAD: index could be equal to length
	for i := 0; i <= len(values); i++ {
		// When i = length, this access will be out of bounds
		if values[i] == searchName {
			return true
	return false

A loop using an index variable i is used to iterate over the elements in the comma-separated list. However, the terminating condition of the loop is incorrectly specified as i <= len(values). This condition holds when i is equal to len(values), but the access values[i] in the body of the loop will be out of bounds in this case.

One potential solution would be to replace i <= len(values) with i < len(values). A better solution is to use a range loop instead, which avoids the need for explicitly manipulating the index variable:

package main

import "strings"

func containsGood(searchName string, names string) bool {
	values := strings.Split(names, ",")
	// GOOD: Avoid using indexes, use range loop instead
	for _, name := range values {
		if name == searchName {
			return true
	return true


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