CodeQL documentation

Using API graphs in Python

API graphs are a uniform interface for referring to functions, classes, and methods defined in external libraries.

About this article

This article describes how to use API graphs to reference classes and functions defined in library code. You can use API graphs to conveniently refer to external library functions when defining things like remote flow sources.

Module imports

The most common entry point into the API graph will be the point where an external module or package is imported. For example, you can access the API graph node corresponding to the re library by using the API::moduleImport method defined in the semmle.python.ApiGraphs module, as the following snippet demonstrates.

import python
import semmle.python.ApiGraphs

select API::moduleImport("re")

This query selects the API graph node corresponding to the re module. This node represents the fact that the re module has been imported rather than a specific location in the program where the import happens. Therefore, there will be at most one result per project, and it will not have a useful location, so you’ll have to click Show 1 non-source result in order to see it.

To find where the re module is referenced in the program, you can use the getAValueReachableFromSource method. The following query selects all references to the re module in the current database.

import python
import semmle.python.ApiGraphs

select API::moduleImport("re").getAValueReachableFromSource()

Note that the getAValueReachableFromSource method accounts for local flow, so that my_re_compile in the following snippet is correctly recognized as a reference to the re.compile function.

from re import compile as re_compile

my_re_compile = re_compile

r = my_re_compile(".*")

If you only require immediate uses, without taking local flow into account, then you can use the asSource method instead.

Note that the given module name must not contain any dots. Thus, something like API::moduleImport("flask.views") will not do what you expect. Instead, this should be decomposed into an access of the views member of the API graph node for flask, as described in the next section.

Accessing attributes

Given a node in the API graph, you can access its attributes by using the getMember method. Using the above re.compile example, you can now find references to re.compile.

import python
import semmle.python.ApiGraphs

select API::moduleImport("re").getMember("compile").getAValueReachableFromSource()

In addition to getMember, you can use the getUnknownMember method to find references to API components where the name is not known statically. You can use the getAMember method to access all members, both known and unknown.

Calls and class instantiations

To track instances of classes defined in external libraries, or the results of calling externally defined functions, you can use the getReturn method. The following snippet finds all places where the return value of re.compile is used:

import python
import semmle.python.ApiGraphs

select API::moduleImport("re").getMember("compile").getReturn().getAValueReachableFromSource()

Note that this includes all uses of the result of re.compile, including those reachable via local flow. To get just the calls to re.compile, you can use asSource instead of getAValueReachableFromSource. As this is a common occurrence, you can, instead of getReturn followed by asSource, simply use getACall. This will result in an API::CallNode, which deserves a small description of its own.

API::CallNode``s are not ``API::Node``s. Instead they are ``DataFlow::Node``s with some convenience predicates that allows you to recover ``API::Node``s for the return value as well as for arguments to the call. This enables you to constrain the call in various ways using the API graph. The following snippet finds all calls to ``re.compile where the pattern argument comes from parsing a command line argument using the argparse library.

import python
import semmle.python.ApiGraphs

from API::CallNode call
    call = API::moduleImport("re").getMember("compile").getACall() and
    call.getParameter(0, "pattern") =
select call

Note that the API graph does not distinguish between class instantiations and function calls. As far as it’s concerned, both are simply places where an API graph node is called.


For many libraries, the main mode of usage is to extend one or more library classes. To track this in the API graph, you can use the getASubclass method to get the API graph node corresponding to all the immediate subclasses of this node. To find all subclasses, use * or + to apply the method repeatedly, as in getASubclass*.

Note that getASubclass does not account for any subclassing that takes place in library code that has not been extracted. Thus, it may be necessary to account for this in the models you write. For example, the flask.views.View class has a predefined subclass MethodView. To find all subclasses of View, you must explicitly include the subclasses of MethodView as well.

import python
import semmle.python.ApiGraphs

API::Node viewClass() {
  result =
    API::moduleImport("flask").getMember("views").getMember(["View", "MethodView"]).getASubclass*()

select viewClass().getAValueReachableFromSource()

Note the use of the set literal ["View", "MethodView"] to match both classes simultaneously.

Built-in functions and classes

You can access built-in functions and classes using the API::builtin method, giving the name of the built-in as an argument.

For example, to find all calls to the built-in open function, you can use the following snippet.

import python
import semmle.python.ApiGraphs

select API::builtin("open").getACall()
  • © GitHub, Inc.
  • Terms
  • Privacy